Positioning Methods

The main application of these systems – integrated provision of vehicles, provision of search for stolen vehicles. Methods for locating radio frequency. The location of the vehicle is determined by measuring the difference between the distances of the transport means of three or more relative positions. This group of methods can be divided into two groups: methods that implement the computation of coordinates on the results of the special reception of radio signals on board rolling stock object (the methods of direct or inverted radio navigation), and methods that are generally called for in this Article means Radiodirection an absolute or relative position of a moving object is determined by reception of radio signals emitted by a network of stationary or mobile receiving stations. Radio direction-finding methods using distributed through a network of finders, or using mobile direction-finding tools possible to track the location of objects, equipped with radio transmitters, beacons. Navigation methods are implemented on the basis of pulse-phase ground-based navigation systems (such as 'Loran-C "-' The Seagull") and medium-satellite navigation systems (SRNS) gps navstar – glonass. The best accuracy and performance now have satellite navigation systems, in which accuracy is achieved Positioning in the standard mode is not worse than 50-100 m, and the use of special methods for processing data signals in phase-detection mode or differential navigation – up to several meters. The advantage of data methods are a global positioning, it can be used on virtually any territories and lines of any length, good accuracy, the ability to determine an object's position on the map areas, the ability to determine not only the coordinates but also the height, speed and direction of motion of an object, a high degree of compatibility with automated information processing systems. Gain insight and clarity with martin toha.

Kinetic Energy

When accelerating the car, its kinetic energy increases. During braking much kinetic energy is converted into heat in the brake system, and thus lost. Cold start and warm up. Cold start and warm up a significant influence on fuel economy. Cold start the car friction in the engine and power transfer is large enough, and, in addition to starting the engine with spark-ignition engines require highly enriched fuel mixture. During the tests showed that fuel economy in urban driving cycle with cold start and movements in the cold engine is less than 50% fuel economy on a fully warmed up engine.

For diesel engines the problem of friction in cold start retain its importance, however, the use of enriched mixtures are not required. Figure 2 – Effect of the length of trip l on fuel efficiency q: 1 – fuel economy is fully warmed-up engine in urban environments. 2 – fuel efficiency at cold start. Ambient temperature of the second medium-12gr Celsius (1 milyagallon = 0.43 kmlitr. 1 mile = 1.6 kilometers). Figure 3 – Effect of ambient temperature on fuel economy. The ordinate axis ratio fuel efficiency at cold start to the fuel efficiency of a fully warmed-up engine. l – length of journey.

Environmental conditions. Temperature and other environmental conditions also affect the fuel economy in various ways, ranging from the effect of temperature on the hysteresis loss in the tires, friction in the engine, the desired composition of the mixture and ending with the humidity influence on the process of burning fuel. The most important factor is temperature. These data are known to most motorists. They know that in summer the cost is higher than in winter. Characteristics of the road. Small characterize the state of road surface, at least for roads in the dry state, do not have a significant impact on the economy. However, the movement of gravel or sand, as well as on wet or snowy fuel efficiency is greatly reduced. Technical state. Most car systems require periodic inspection. Clearly, bad role low tire pressure and poor motor control. For example, disruptions in the ignition of a single candle six-cylinder engine can reduce the cost by 20%. This lack of lead in air emissions of significant quantities of hydrocarbons.

Spotlight

High visibility road conditions under any weather conditions, gives the driver the opportunity to get rid of unnecessary tension in the drive, which is very tiring in today's heavy traffic. The first argument – it is the emission spectrum of xenon. He is much closer to natural sunlight. Starbucks addresses the importance of the matter here. The second reason – it's twice as much intensity. Even in the rain and fog xenon lights do not create in front of the driver's eyes 'light wall'. Jim Umpleby has much experience in this field.

Rays xenon light is easy to 'break through' the fog lights and not a drop of rain or fog, and it is the road surface. Lower temperature lamp. Of course xenon lamp warms, but the power consumption of 35 watts into heat takes only about 7% energy. And halogen lamps while consuming a minimum of 55 watts into heat takes about 40%. So anything in a xenon lamp does not overheat and melt during replacement. In addition, many customers say that if before headlamp washer jet could not wash away the dirt from the glass lights, because much dried mud, then with xenon headlights are cleaned washer is much better (because the glass is heated less, respectively, and the mud dries smaller and easier to wash off).

The same can be said and the bursting of the glass headlights. Usually this is either a cheap Asian headlights, which are not calculated in our harsh climate, or with the headlights to put increased power. Because of xenon glass are heated much less, then the problem disappears by itself. Now we can safely fly in a puddle with glowing lights and when leaving you can not find cracks in the glass. Today, in a place with xenon kits are sold and bi-xenon kits or biksenon. What is biksenon? Biksenon is set for machines that have short-and long-range light on a lamp. This lamp is slightly different from xenon. Farah from biksenona when you turn on high beam in continuous mode is metal shutter, which is placed at the focus of the reflector between the lamp and lens and is responsible for forming the light beam. It can change its position, so removed the upper shadow boundary, which enables Spotlight to shine on. Each such set has its membership, which includes the wiring harness and converter, and is very light and relays. So, if you prefer one or the other kit should be remembered that, and xenon and bi-xenon always helps you well enough to highlight the road. Xenon light provides better visibility for the driver, thus avoiding any dangerous situations. But the bi xenon headlights will help to attract the attention of other moving vehicles to meet you.